During training camp, Trevathan sustained a fracture in his leg right below the left kneecap, which caused him to miss the first three games of the season.
Trevathan, the Broncos starting weakside linebacker, will be eligible to return in eight weeks.
The 24-year-old has seven tackles in two games this season and has 189 career tackles and three interceptions.
Rookie linebacker Corey Nelson replaced Trevathan against the Jets. Nelson was a seventh-round draft pick by the Broncos in May.
Denver is 4-1 this season and hosts the San Francisco 49ers on Sunday.
- Molly Geary