Billy McDonald and Michael Balkovic scored 11 apiece and Dawan Lighty added 10 for Caldwell, which limited Binghamton to 6-of-21 shooting in the first half.
Balkovic and Lighty combined to score 17 points before halftime and the Cougars took a 28-16 lead into the break, holding the Bearcats to their lowest scoring output in a first half this season.
Caldwell opened the game with a 9-0 run as Binghamton (1-9) committed a turnover on each of its first five possessions.
A 3-pointer by Nick Madray cut the Binghamton deficit to 14-9 with 11:38 left in the half, but a 3 by Light sparked an 11-3 run and the Bearcats never got closer than seven the rest of the way.
Caldwell made 23 of 30 free throws while Binghamton was 1 of 4 from the stripe.