Jagr beat Tampa Bay goalie Johan Holmqvist with a wrist shot just 1:43 into the game after teammate Michael Nylander tipped Karel Rachunek's slap shot to him in front of the net. It was Jagr's ninth goal of the season and fourth in four games.
Jagr is the second Rangers forward to reach 600 goals this season. Brendan Shanahan did it in his debut for New York on Oct. 5 against Washington.
The home crowd at Madison Square Garden cheered wildly when the scoreboard flashed the milestone, but Jagr didn't appear to notice as he sat on the bench while waiting for his next shift.
Jagr, in his 16th NHL season and third with the Rangers, moved within one goal of tying Jari Kurri for 15th on the career list.