Countdown to Canton: Duke Slater was a trailblazer with a clear HOF career

Ron Borges

The Pro Football Hall of Fame is deservedly a place for firsts and finest. If you agree, one has to wonder why Duke Slater wasn't enshrined in Canton long ago.

"Duke who?" you ask. Therein lies the problem of being relegated to the dusty pages of long-forgotten history.

Duke Slater was arguably the finest African-American professional football player of the first half of the 20th century and one of the NFL's best two-way linemen in the league's infant years. Just as significantly, he was also a pioneer in pro football’s infancy in the 10 years between 1922 and 1931.

There is no more deserving candidate on the list of 20 senior finalists for next year’s special Centennial Hall of Fame class that will select 10 of the 20 finalists in celebration of the NFL’s 100th birthday.

Slater was the NFL's first African-American lineman, joining the Rock Island Independents in 1922 after being a two-time All-American at Iowa. His rise was unlikely, not only because of the racism of the time but also because his father, a Methodist minister, forbade him to play football when they moved to Clinton, Ia., from Chicago when Slater was 13.

He obeyed his freshman year but surreptitiously made the team the following season. His father learned of this only after seeing his wife sewing up rips in his son's uniform. He again was ordered not to play and went on a hunger strike for several days before his father relented with one caveat: He could not afford to pay for both a helmet and shoes, which the players had to provide at the time, so his son had to pick.

He chose shoes and thus played helmetless throughout high school and most of his college career at Iowa.

That didn't prevent him from becoming one of the greatest linemen in Iowa history, an inaugural inductee into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1951, and later an attorney and Municipal Court Judge in Chicago. In 1960, he would become the first black member of the Chicago Superior Court, which was the highest court in the city at the time.

In between those two accomplishments, Slater played 10 years in what was the then-National Football League's hardscrabble infancy for the Milwaukee Badgers (1921-1922), Rock Island Independents (1922-1926) and Chicago Cardinals (1926-1931) before retiring after the 1931 season. He was not only the first African-American lineman in NFL history but, not surprisingly considering the corrosive powers of racism and bigotry, one of the best because anything else would have blocked him from playing.

Slater played both ways and often every minute of every game, which he did for four consecutive years for Rock Island, and continued doing even late in his career in Chicago. On Nov. 28, 1929, Slater was the only lineman to play all 60 minutes in the famous Thanksgiving Day game against the Chicago Bears, won by the Cardinals, 40-6.

That day Ernie Nevers scored a record 40 points on six rushing TDs. According to newspaper stories of that time, they all came behind Slater's blocking.

Fritz Crisler, the legendary Michigan coach, once said of Slater: "I tried to block him throughout my college career but never once did I impede his progress to the ball carrier.''

It wasn't much different in the NFL. In fact, he was so formidable he not only overran and blocked out his opponents; he even blocked out racism for a number of years.

Slater never missed a game because of injury and started 96 of the 99 games he played, making All-Pro six times. When he retired, Slater's 10 pro seasons ranked third for longevity in NFL history, and those 96 starts were fourth at the time.

Slater’s percentage of starts-to-games-played was the highest of any NFL player whose career ended before 1950 (minimum 80 games) and would have been higher had he not been held out of a 1924 game by Rock Island management. It was against the winless Kansas City Blues, and he sat because of an agreement among teams that prevented African-Americans from playing in Missouri.

It was the only game he missed in his career. Two weeks later, in a rematch in Illinois, he returned to the lineup and Rock Island won, 17-0.

By 1927, Slater's sixth year in the NFL, owners had begun to discuss banning black players from the league, as major league baseball had. That year, eight of the nine African-American players in the league disappeared. Only one remained: Duke Slater.

For all but two games, Slater was the only African-American player in the National Football League between 1927 and 1929, the exception coming when he convinced the Cardinals to sign Harold Bradley, Sr. to play alongside him. Bradley was cut after two games.

Slater was named All-Pro in 1927 and 1929. It is believed he was omitted in 1928 because the financially-strapped Cardinals played just half a season that year.

Four other African-Americans played briefly between 1928 and 1933, when the ban went into full effect. It remained so until 1946, when the Rams' move to the West Coast resulted in a political demand in Los Angeles that they employ black players. They hired two – former UCLA running back Kenny Washington and his ex-UCLA teammate, end Woody Strode. Both were past their primes and only shadows of the players they had been when teamed with Jackie Robinson at UCLA in 1939 in what was called “the Gold Dust Gang.

It would be two more years before the Detroit Lions became the second team to sign two black players.

By then, Slater had moved on to become only the second African-American elected a judge in Chicago, once again breaking down racial barriers in his new field. But is not simply because Duke Slater almost single-handily held racism at bay for a decade in the NFL that he belongs in Canton, although that alone would seem to be reason enough.

The real reason is that he was one of the best two-way linemen of his day, a six-time All-Pro at a time when there were barely six black players in all of professional football and the greatest African-American pro football player of the first half of the 20th century.

Oddly, Duke Slater was a Hall-of-Fame finalist in 1970 and 1971 but did not gain enshrinement. He quickly faded away, never to again see his name as a Hall-of-Fame finalist until the Centennial list of 20 seniors came out. If you can find a reason why his long wait shouldn’t finally come to an end with this month’s vote, please let us know.

Comments (13)
No. 1-3

Ron, very informative article, lots of intriguing details. Wow, playing without a helmet? That’s dedication.

Agreed — Duke Slater belongs in the HoF and should have been enshrined long ago. He made 1st team all pro only three times (second team a number of times), but the thinking is that he didn’t get his due here because of his race. Given that this was a time when the resurgent KKK was at its height of popularity and the US was coming off the presidency of a bigoted Woodrow Wilson (who enacted a ban on Blacks in government jobs), this was not one of our country’s more enlightened eras.

Not sure how much film exists on Slater, but all reports suggest it shows exemplary level play from him.

So glad to hear his case appears to be resonating well with the Blue Ribbon Committee. Really hoping he gets in.


I support his candidacy, but it would be nice to hear an argument for Slater that doesn't mention race. It'd be a slippery slope to start judging players, as opposed to contributors, on off the field concerns. Not to mention raise questions about why someone like OJ Simpson isn't kicked out if this isn't strictly about football performance. It also risks shortchanging a guy like Slater as a player.

When evaluating Slater I treated him as a white man. He has plenty of glowing testimonials, but the tipping point for me was Red Grange, who played against him, putting him on his 40th NFL anniversary team, one of only 13 men included and the only one not in the HoF.

brian wolf
brian wolf

Sorry guys, especially to you Clark, but the events that transpired today, are exactly why I have criticised the HOF for years...

Its bad enough that players have to face "cutdown lists", that create agony and tension amongst the players, especially older players and their families, having to wait to hear their names called, but having these seniors go through the process of being voted on today, and not be announced for another week is ridiculous...

Why ?

Because its all out PR and creating more drama and intrigue for the Hall Of Fame itself, and not the players and coaches, that we should be celebrating.

I waited ALL DAY, with every media outlet reporting that the BRP was making its decisions, and not getting an announcement about who made the cut, while we then, finally get word that the players, their families, friends and fans have to wait ANOTHER week, to get the results of todays, decision.

If I am nervous and anxious, imagine how these players and families feel ?

This is why I was hoping the inductees would find out just once and for all, even if it was Feb 2nd, than going for a cutdown list before January, another vote on Jan 8th, and the results on Jan 15th !

To me its all about creating drama and tension, or worse, television ratings, while the players and coaches are left on the backburner.

Then, we cant even get news or an itinerary, from the Hall Of Fames own website , or the networks about when the voting decisions or dates will be made !

Very disrespectful to the players, coaches, fans and teams themselves in my opinion.

1 Reply


Apparently the brp met for 11-12 hours

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