Beckett struck out six, walked three and didn't come close to allowing a hit against a lineup that included two former NL MVPs and four former All-Stars.
The 34-year-old right-hander, whose career was almost derailed last year by a nerve condition that left him unable to feel his fingertips, threw 128 pitches and fanned Chase Utley on a called strike three to end the game.
Beckett mixed a sharp fastball with a slow, deceptive curve that kept hitters off-balance. He pitched the Dodgers' first no-hitter since Hideo Nomo beat Colorado at Coors Field in 1996, and the 21st in franchise history. Sandy Koufax threw four.
Beckett pitched the first no-hitter in the majors since Miami's Henderson Alvarez did it against Detroit on the final day of the 2013 season.
Beckett also became the first visiting pitcher to throw a no-hitter in Philadelphia since Montreal's Bill Stoneman stopped the Phillies on April 17, 1969, at Connie Mack Stadium.
Beckett sat at the end of the bench, next to a security guard, as the Dodgers batted in the ninth inning, before taking the mound in his bid for history.
Beckett retired pinch-hitter Tony Gwynn Jr. on a popup to shortstop to start the ninth. Speedy Ben Revere followed with a grounder that first baseman Adrian Gonzalez fielded, and he flipped to Beckett covering the bag for the second out.
Beckett then threw a 94 mph fastball that Utley looked at, and plate umpire Brian Knight called strike three to end it.
Beckett walked off the mound, pumped his fist and was mobbed by teammates. He got a standing ovation from the crowd of 36,141 at Citizens Bank Park on his way to the dugout.
Last July, Beckett had a rib removed in thoracic outlet syndrome surgery to fix a condition that was affecting his right arm. He went 0-5 with a 5.19 ERA in eight games in 2013.
Beckett (3-1) started this season on the disabled list with a thumb injury, raising more doubts about how effective he would be this season.
A three-time All-Star, Beckett was the MVP of the 2003 World Series for the Marlins, capping off their championship run by pitching a five-hit shutout in the clinching Game 6 at Yankee Stadium.
Roy Halladay had the only other no-hitter at cozy Citizens Bank Park, doing it for the Phillies in a 4-0 playoff win over Cincinnati on Oct. 6, 2010.
In 1988, Pascual Perez of the Expos held the host Phillies hitless for five innings at Veterans Stadium before the game was stopped because of rain. A Major League Baseball committee later ruled that no-hitters of less than nine innings didn't officially count.
Beckett walked Utley in the first and Marlon Byrd in the second before retiring 23 straight batters.
The Phillies were shut out for the fourth time in their last seven home games and seventh time this season.
Phillies righty A.J. Burnett (3-4) allowed six runs - four earned - and 11 hits in seven innings in a matchup against his former Marlins teammate. Burnett is 1-3 with a 6.26 in his last four starts.
Gonzalez's RBI double to right-center with two outs in the first gave the Dodgers a 1-0 lead. Gonzalez snapped an 0-for-12 slump with the hit.
Justin Turner led off the second with a solo homer to straightaway center that just cleared the wall to make it 2-0. Turner singled and scored on Erisbel Arruebarrena's two-out single in the sixth, giving the Dodgers a 3-0 lead.
Phillies manager Ryne Sandberg allowed Burnett to lead off the bottom of the sixth instead of pinch-hitting for him with a 3-0 deficit. Burnett grounded out and then allowed three runs in the seventh.
Beckett followed Burnett as one of the prized young arms in Florida a decade ago. It was the fifth time they've faced each other and first matchup since Aug. 7, 2009, when Beckett was in Boston and Burnett pitched for the Yankees. New York won that game 2-0 in the 15th inning.
NOTES: Dodgers SS Hanley Ramirez remained out of the lineup because of a sore calf. ... The Phillies placed 3B Cody Asche on the DL with a left hamstring strain. ... Dodgers CF Matt Kemp, the 2011 NL MVP runner-up, wasn't in the starting lineup for the third straight game. Manager Don Mattingly said Kemp will start playing some LF. The Dodgers finished a nine-game road trip with a 5-4 record. They're 18-11 on the road, 9-13 at home. ... The Dodgers return home to start a three-game series vs. Cincinnati on Monday. LHP Hyun-Jin Ryu (4-3) goes for LA against RHP Johnny Cueto (4-3). ... For the Phillies, RHP Kyle Kendrick (0-5) faces Colorado's Jhoulys Chacin (0-3) in the opener of a three-game set Monday.