Manager Kirk Gibson announced the news Sunday, two days after Goldschmidt was hit by a pitch from Pittsburgh reliever Ernesto Frieri.
Gibson put Goldschmidt's rehabilitation timetable at eight weeks, with the season ending in late September. No surgery is expected.
Goldschmidt hit .300 with 19 home runs and 69 RBIs this season. A two-time All-Star, he led the NL with 125 RBIs last year and tied for the league lead with 36 homers while batting .302.
Goldschmidt turns 27 next month.
The Diamondbacks used Mark Trumbo at first base on Sunday and will rotate players at the position over the rest of the season.
''A little bit of a trial and error to see how it works,'' Gibson said. ''It's going to be hard to replace Goldy over there with what he brought us with his consistency.''