Right-hander Dallas Beeler was optioned to Iowa to make room on the 25-man roster.
Hendricks was 10-5 with a 3.59 ERA in 17 games - all starts - this season at Iowa. The Dartmouth graduate is 31-19 with a 2.69 ERA in 90 minor league games, including 69 starts, in three-plus minor league seasons.
His start on Thursday made him the second Chicago pitcher in three days and third in 13 to make his major league debut with a start. Tsuyoshi Wade started the second game of Tuesday's day-night doubleheader.
Beeler, who made his major league debut on June 28 and started Wednesday, is 0-2 with a 3.27 ERA.