He had spent just five weeks with the team.
Pryor had previously been the team's third-string quarterback behind A.J. McCarron and Andy Dalton when the team signed him on May 10.
Pryor is best known for his years at Ohio State, where he threw for 57 touchdowns and more than 6,100 yards.
He led the Buckeyes to three Big Ten championships as well as Rose Bowl and Sugar Bowl victories over Oregon in 2010 and Arkansas in 2011, respectively.
The Sugar Bowl win and the Buckeyes' 2010 Big Ten championship were later vacated when it was found Pryor accepted improper benefits from the owner of a local tattoo parlor.