Cleveland designated the 37-year-old left-hander for assignment on Saturday and recalled right-hander Austin Adams.
Indians manager Terry Francona said Chen wanted to talk with his family about whether he should try to continue his pitching career.
Chen is 82-81 with a 4.62 ERA in 17 major league seasons. He pitched 6 1-3 innings since he was brought up on May 9 from Triple-A Columbus, where he had made five starts.
''He said, `I'm not effective right now against major league hitters,''' Francona said.