Financial details of the agreement announced on Tuesday were not disclosed.
The Steelers took the 5-foot-9, 176-pound cornerback with the 56th overall pick in the draft. Golson was a first-team All-American last fall for Mississippi. His 10 interceptions in 2014 tied a school record.
Golson is the fourth of Pittsburgh's eight draft picks to sign. The Steelers begin organized team activities on May 26.