Xavien Howard, Bobby McCain, Damien Williams and Zach Vigil were also placed on the PUP list.
Foster, 29, signed a one-year contract with the Dolphins earlier this month after playing in just four games for the Texans last season as he dealt with injuries. He sat out the beginning of the season with a groin tear and ruptured his Achilles tendon in Week 7, knocking him out for the rest of the season.
Adam Beasley of the Miami Herald reports that the Dolphins placed Foster on the PUP list as a precautionary measure as he continues his recovery from the Achilles injury.
Foster led the league with 1,616 rushing yards in 2010 and with 351 carries in 2012, but has played just 25 of 48 games since then. The seven-year veteran has been selected to four Pro Bowls in his career.