He is set to miss the 2014 World Cup, which runs June 12-July 13, the FFF said after a disciplinary committee meeting, which M'Vila attended.
Although four others also left their Le Havre training camp in the early hours for a Paris nightclub last month, M'Vila's experience - with 22 full caps - made him the senior player in the squad.
Defender Chris Mavinga, who is M'Vila's club teammate at Rennes, Real Sociedad's Antoine Griezmann, AC Milan's Mbaye Niang and Wissam Ben Yedder of Toulouse - all forwards - were suspended until March next year.
Previously, the 22-year-old M'Vila was suspended by for one match after refusing to shake the hand of coach Laurent Blanc and substitute Olivier Giroud when he was taken off against Spain during the European Championship in June.
M'Vila has seen his club career nosedive after being linked with a move to Arsenal last season, and his international career is now in tatters as he has no chance of playing at the World Cup in Brazil if France qualifies. M'Vila was also arrested earlier this year for slapping a 17-year-old boy following an argument.
Deschamps had dropped him to the under-21s as a way of getting him to reflect on his actions at Euro 2012, and show responsibility toward younger players. But it had little effect.
"I don't know if the word `disappointed' is enough, and not just for him, but for all five,'' Deschamps said earlier Thursday, when announcing his squad for France's friendly against Italy next week. "What they did is incompatible with the France shirt.''
A strict disciplinarian, Deschamps instilled a rigid work ethic in the France team during his time as captain. The central midfielder set the example with his tireless work rate and competitive attitude as he led France to victory at the 1998 World Cup and at Euro 2000. He also captained Marseille to the Champions League trophy in 1993.
The behavior of national team players has been heavily scrutinised in France - even all the way up to government level - since an infamous training ground strike at the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. The squad refused to train in protest at Nicolas Anelka being sent home from the squad for insulting then coach Raymond Domenech. Former captain Patrice Evra and Franck Ribery were suspended for five and three games respectively.
Blanc also had his problems with the players at Euro 2012.
Midfielder Samir Nasri was banned for three games for insulting a journalist in an expletive-laced tirade, winger Jeremy Menez got a one-game ban for using inappropriate language toward his own goalkeeper, Hugo Lloris, and winger Hatem Ben Arfa escaped a ban but was reproached for speaking on his mobile phone when Blanc was issuing his post-match talk following the 2-0 defeat to Sweden.
Nasri has served his suspension, but neither he nor Ben Arfa have been called up to the France squad since Deschamps replaced Blanc after Euro 2012.