The two storied clubs will play one another in the round of 16, while the likes of Atletico Madrid, Lazio, Dortmund and Lyon learned their fate as well.
Arsenal has been handed a challenging tie against AC Milan in the next round of the Europa League after the draw for the last 16 was made on Friday.
The Gunners progressed from the last 32 following a 4-2 aggregate win over Swedish side Ostersund, despite a scare in the second leg after going 2-0 down on the night, and will ultimately be aiming to win the competition to guarantee a return to the Champions League.
Borussia Dortmund, who last won this competition in 2002 under its UEFA guise, was paired with Austrian champions Red Bull Salzburg in what is shaping up to be a very strong and competitive knockout section.
The 2010 and 2012 winner, Atletico Madrid, has been drawn with Lokomotiv Moscow, while RB Leipzig must face 2008 winner Zenit St Petersburg.
2017/18 Europa League Last 16 Draw:
Lazio vs Dynamo Kyiv
RB Leipzig vs Zenit St Petersburg
Atletico Madrid vs Lokomotiv Moscow
CSKA Moscow vs Lyon
Marseille vs Athletic Bilbao
Sporting CP vs Viktoria Plzen
Borussia Dortmund vs Red Bull Salzburg
AC Milan vs Arsenal
First leg ties will be played on Thursday, March 8, with return legs one week later on March 15. The draw for the quarterfinals will follow the day after the second legs.