Reimold was diagnosed with a herniated disk and had surgery at the Baltimore hospital in June 2012. He contends he was discharged the following January without any restrictions.
He returned to the Orioles in 2013, appearing in only 40 games.
His complaint, filed Tuesday in Baltimore Circuit Court, alleges that the surgery failed because Reimold was permitted by Hopkins neurosurgeon Ziya Gokaslan to engage in strenuous physical activities even though he had not fully recovered.
Reimold said in a statement: ''Every game I played caused me further injury because my bones weren't fused.''
Phone calls from The Associated Press to the hospital were not immediately returned.
Reimold signed a minor league contract with Baltimore in February and is currently playing with the team's Triple-A affiliate in Norlfolk, Virginia.