DeFilippo, 36, will replace Kyle Shanahan, whom the team said resigned earlier this month. Before Shanahan left the team, a report surfaced saying there was friction between the front office and coaches.
DeFilippo just completed the fifth season of his second stint as the Raiders' quarterbacks coach. Under DeFilippo last season, second-round pick Derek Carr emerged as one of the top rookie quarterbacks in the NFL.
DeFilippo also coached Oakland's quarterbacks from 2007-08.
Brian Hoyer received most of the first-team snaps at quarterback for the Browns last season, but rookie Johnny Manziel also started two games. Cleveland ranked 23rd in the league in total offense and 27th in scoring offense.
The Browns went 7-9 and finished in last place in the NFC North after losing their final five games.