BUDAPEST, Hungary (AP) The ''halo'' cockpit head protection system that will be mandatory on Formula One cars next season protects drivers from the potentially fatal impact of objects like a loose wheel traveling at up to 225 kph (140 mph).
Motor sport's governing body, FIA, has been looking at ways to improve cockpit protection and limit the risk of head injuries, after French F1 driver Jules Bianchi died in July 2015 and British IndyCar driver Justin Wilson died a month later.
''The halo will become the strongest part of the car, a secondary wall structure (along with the helmet) and can take about 15 times the car's weight,'' FIA safety director Laurent Mekies said at a news conference Thursday. ''We know that our resistance against small objects has stepped up.''
Drivers remain divided over the move.
The halo design forms a semi-circular barrier around the driver's helmet in the front half of the cockpit, protecting against debris without completely closing the cockpit. When first tested ahead of 2016, drivers were split as to whether they liked it with some - such as three-time F1 champion Lewis Hamilton - criticizing it on aesthetic grounds.
Tests were done from the front and side of the car with a loose wheel weighing 20 kilograms. Researchers took in various factors: car-to-car contact, car-to-environment contact and external objects, such as a wheel. They also analyzed real-life accidents, including those with fatalities.
In terms of manufacturing design, FIA race director Charlie Whiting said ''it's going to be a one-part (piece) made by one company, so they all have to fit the same one.''
The device is expected to weigh about 8 kilograms, Whiting said. The manufacturer has yet to be decided, although several companies have been contacted. Hamilton and his Mercedes teammate Valtteri Bottas both expressed concern that the extra weight will impact driving, particularly on cornering speeds.
Other safety devices were considered before the halo was approved by the FIA last week.
At the British Grand Prix two weeks ago, a transparent open canopy system constructed using polycarbonate, and known as the ''shield,'' was tested at Silverstone by four-time F1 champion Sebastian Vettel.
The Ferrari driver was critical.
''I wasn't a big fan of the shield,'' Vettel said. ''For sure you need to get used to the halo, but at least it didn't impact on the vision.''
Bianchi died at the age of 25, several months after massive head injuries sustained at the Japanese GP in October 2014.
Bianchi's accident at Suzuka occurred at the end of the race in rainy, gloomy conditions, when his Marussia team car slid off the track and ploughed into a crane picking up the Sauber of German driver Adrian Sutil, who had crashed at the same spot one lap earlier.
Wilson died in August 2015, a day after being hit on the helmet by debris from another car at Pocono Raceway in Pennsylvania.
''We believe (the halo) would have changed dramatically the outcome of the accident,'' Mekies said.
Vettel, who emotionally dedicated his 2015 win at Hungary to Bianchi, said the change was justified.
''We would all take it, to help save his life. We can't turn back the clock,'' the German driver said. ''But knowing something is there that would help us is stupid to ignore. Overall it's supposed to help us, so that's what we should remember.''
While Hamilton and others have been critical of the halo's appearance, Vettel championed it.
''Times are changing and moving forward,'' Vettel said. ''It helps us in the car in case something goes very wrong.''
Two-time F1 champion Fernando Alonso is also in favor.
''If we could go back in time and save lives we would all be happy,'' the Spanish driver said. ''That's the first and only thing we should talk about. The aesthetics I don't care too much (about).''
Several drivers disagree.
''Doesn't look too good,'' Renault driver Nico Hulkenberg said. ''Not sure that this additional protection is necessary because all the other areas (of safety) are improving.''
Red Bull's Max Verstappen, and Haas drivers Kevin Magnussen and Romain Grosjean are also against it.
''I didn't like the visibility and the thing in front of you, it's not great,'' the 19-year-old Verstappen said. ''I don't think you will lose the wheel very easily (anyway) and when there are parts flying around the car it's not going to protect you. So I don't know why we need it.''
Magnussen took a sarcastic tone.
''F1 cars aren't meant to be ugly. That is the reason that a Ferrari is more exciting than a Mazda,'' the Danish driver said. ''I think there is a limit where it becomes too safe to be exciting. We could make the cars go 80 kilometers (50 miles) per hour and it would be boring.''
Grosjean said ''it was a sad day for Formula 1 when it was announced, and I am still against it.''