Westbrook scored 41 points to lead the Western Conference to a 163-158 win at Madison Square Garden in New York City.
Over 26 minutes, the 6-foot-3 guard finished with converted 16 of his 28 shot attempts for 41 points, one shy of the record set in 1962 by Hall of Famer Wilt Chamberlain.
Westbrook also recorded five rebounds, one assist and three steals, connected on five of nine three-point tries and went a perfect 4-for-4 from the free-throw line.
In the third quarter, Westbrook leapt so high to throw down an alley-oop dunk that he hit his head on the backboard.
Westbrook failed to match Chamberlain, but he did set a record for most points in a half of an All-Star Game with 27 in the first half. The previous record for points in a half was 24, set by Kyrie Irving in 2014 and Glen Rice in 1997.
Westbrook is making his fourth All-Star appearance this season. Over 39 games, he has averaged a career-high 25.8 points, 7.6 assists and 6.3 rebounds.