Meeks fills the spot left open after the Bills traded quarterback Matt Cassel to the Dallas Cowboys on Tuesday. He will also provide depth at safety with starter Aaron Williams' status uncertain after he hurt his neck in a 40-32 loss to the New England Patriots last weekend.
Buffalo (1-1) travels to play Miami (1-1) on Sunday.
Meeks has appeared in eight games with Bills after being selected in the fifth round of the 2013 draft. He was cut by Buffalo on Sept. 5 before being signed to the practice squad.
The Bills also signed former West Texas A&M quarterback Dustin Vaughan to their practice squad.
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